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            中華文化|二柄 Two Handles

            發布日期:2024-01-18??來源:中華思想文化術語??作者:《中華思想文化術語》編委會??瀏覽次數:144
            核心提示:二柄Two Handles君主所掌握的兩種權柄,即賞罰之權。獎賞與懲罰是政治治理的基本手段,不同學派都有所討論。韓非子(前280?—前233)特別重視賞罰在政治治理中的作用,認為賞罰應以國家的法令為依據,合乎法令則賞,違背法令則罰。人們畏懼刑罰、喜好獎賞,就會按照法令的規范行事。韓非子同時強調,君主應掌握施加賞罰的權力,以保證賞罰依據法令而行,避免賞

            二柄

            Two Handles

            君主所掌握的兩種權柄,即賞罰之權。獎賞與懲罰是政治治理的基本手段,不同學派都有所討論。韓非子(前280?—前233)特別重視賞罰在政治治理中的作用,認為賞罰應以國家的法令為依據,合乎法令則賞,違背法令則罰。人們畏懼刑罰、喜好獎賞,就會按照法令的規范行事。韓非子同時強調,君主應掌握施加賞罰的權力,以保證賞罰依據法令而行,避免賞罰之權旁落而成為個人謀求私利的工具。

            In this context, two handles mean a sovereign ruler has the power to both confer rewards and mete out punishments. Both are basic ways of governance and have been subjects of discussion in different schools of thought. Ancient scholar Hanfeizi (280?-233 BC) attached great importance to the role of rewards and punishments in governance, believing that both should be given according to the law. One who abode by the law should be offered rewards and one who broke the law should be given punishment. This would make people behave in accordance with the law as they love rewards and fear punishment. He also emphasized that a sovereign should exercise his power in such a way so that rewards and punishments were given exactly as the law requires and that such power was not abused as a tool to seek personal gain.

            引例 Citation:

            ◎二柄者,刑、德也。何謂刑、德?曰:殺戮之謂刑,慶賞之謂德。為人臣者畏誅罰而利慶賞,故人主自用其刑德,則群臣畏其威而歸其利矣。(《韓非子·二柄》)

            兩種權柄,就是指刑和德。什么是刑、德?殺戮稱為刑,獎賞稱為德。官吏畏懼刑罰而謀求獎賞,因此君主親自施用獎賞,官吏就會畏懼刑罰的威勢而去謀求獎賞之利了。

            The term "two kinds of power" refers to punishments and honors. What is meant by punishments and honors? The answer is: the death penalty is a form of punishment and reward is a form of honor. Officials fear punishments and seek honors. When a sovereign ruler exercises these two powers, his officials will undoubtedly fear punishments and seek honors. (Hanfeizi)

            推薦:教育部 國家語委

            供稿:北京外國語大學 外語教學與研究出版社

            責任編輯:錢耐安

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